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Carbon Markets Will Not Deliver for Southern Governments, Forest and People (2011)
25 November 2011
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Ninety-seven per cent of the existing carbon market is linked to the European Union’s Emissions Trading Scheme (EU ETS). The EU ETS currently does not accept forest offset credits and this will not change until at least 2020. After this time, it is unclear whether there will even be a European carbon market. There are other regional trading schemes but whether or not they will include forest credits remains to be seen. State of the Forest Carbon Markets 2011 - From Canopy to Currency (2011)
15 September 2011
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The data and analysis that follow cover forest carbon activity in compliance carbon markets—such as under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), the New Zealand Emissions Trading Scheme (NZ ETS), and the New South Wales Greenhouse Gas Reduction Scheme (NSW GGAS)—as well as voluntary carbon markets—such as the voluntary Over-the-Counter (OTC) market and the Chicago Climate Exchange (CCX). In total, the authors captured responses from 161 project developers or project proponents in the primary forest carbon market and 48 suppliers in the secondary market covering 412 individual forest carbon projects. The REDD Market Should Not End Up a Subprime House of Cards: Introducing a New REDD Architecture for Environmental Integrity (2011)
06 September 2011
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This briefing note suggests a possible REDD architecture involving zoning that can help ensure the environmental integrity of REDD market through physical isolation of areas with possibilities of international leakage and bundling similar emission causes together for greater homogeneity and lower errors in baseline estimations, while also permitting publicly funded nonmarket REDD activities to function alongside the market based activities. For this purpose seven sectors are proposed for REDD+. State & Trends of The Carbon Market 2011
15 June 2011
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With the goal of providing a comprehensive discussion of the issues that most affected the carbon market in 2010, the authors of last year’s report have restructured State and Trends of the Carbon Market for 2011. The report still provides an overview of the size and reach of the carbon markets, as well as the evolution of the Kyoto flexibility mechanisms, and offers potential supply/demand scenarios for coming years. However, it no longer includes a detailed breakdown of carbon transactions, as in previous years. Instead, the report provides a more in-depth analytical discussion of the regulation and policy issues that will guide future carbon market development. Finding a Path to REDD Investment (2011)
15 June 2011
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There were a number of clear messages that emerged from the roundtable: ·          There is an urgent need for regulatory frameworks at all lev­els to facilitate investment and create demand – not just at the UN; ·          To implement REDD investments, there needs to be accom­modation in terms of policy and politics, with governments in host countries putting in place the conditions for REDD investments while those in buyer countries create demand; ·         Governments need to introduce the ‘infrastructure’ to facili­tate REDD projects, not least through addressing land tenure and ensuring that property rights are enshrined in law; ·         Policy-makers need to look beyond carbon markets, and encourage markets for sustainable forest products – such as bioenergy, timber or palm oil – to help transform the eco­nomics around at-risk forests; and *      The finance sector needs to be creative in producing financ­ing solutions, and engage with the risks inherent in REDD projects. Back to the Future - State of The Voluntary Carbon Markets 2011
02 June 2011
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The 2011 State of the Voluntary Carbon Markets report offers insights from a larger proportion of the world’s carbon offset suppliers representing more business and project locations than ever before. More than 280 suppliers voluntarily contributed data and dozens more offered their insights through interviews that narrate the report largest data collection to date. It is important to note that it is not possible to track every trade and acknowledge the limitations of survey-based analysis. It is encourage for the readers to consider the reported numbers as conservative and to understand the report methodology. Despite imperfections, this approach has enabled to document market trends and drivers, helping participants to better understand the current market landscape and emerging developments. National REDD+ Registries - An Overview of Issues & Design Options (2011)
15 May 2011
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Registries can help ensure confidence, integrity, transparency and efficiency of information relating to ERPs, and any units and / or payments issued for it. When designing REDD+ incentives, financing mechanisms and payment-based programs, registries will be required to play a key role ensuring that important information is captured, processed, stored, and accessible when required. This will help promote the credibility of REDD+ reductions and ensure that there is one aggregated and centralized repository of information to record and disclose this information. The report is organized into 4 sections. The first section is the introduction. The second section summarizes the findings of a number of interviews conducted to identify key features that a registry should contain. The third section introduces registries in general, explaining the value and basic infrastructure. Section 4 goes into more detail on national REDD+ registries, exploring different options for designing national REDD+ registries. Options for REDD+ Voluntary Certification to Ensure Net GHG Benefits, Poverty Alleviation, Sustainable Management of Forests and Biodiversity Conservation (2011)
27 April 2011
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Abstract: The authors objective was to compare and evaluate the practical applicability to REDD+ of ten forest management, social, environmental and carbon standards that are currently active worldwide: Climate, Community and Biodiversity (CCB), CCB REDD+ Social and Environmental Standards (CCBA REDD+ S&E), CarbonFix Standard (CFS), Forest Stewardship Council (FSC), Global Conservation Standard (GCS), ISO 14064:2006, Plan Vivo Standard, Programme for Endorsement of Forest Certification (PEFC), SOCIALCARBON Standard and the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS). The authors developed a framework for evaluation of these standards relative to each other using four substantive criteria: (1) poverty alleviation, (2) sustainable management of forests (SMF), (3) biodiversity protection, (4) quantification and assessment of net greenhouse gas (GHG) benefits; and two procedural criteria: (5) monitoring and reporting, and (6) certification procedures. REDD programs require assessment of GHG benefits, monitoring, reporting and certification. Our analysis shows that only the Voluntary Carbon Standard (VCS) treats these three criteria comprehensively. No standard provides comprehensive coverage of the social and other environmental criteria. FSC, PEFC and CarbonFix provide comprehensive assessments of the sustainable forest management criterion. CCBA REDD+ S&E, CCB, and GCS provide comprehensive coverage of the biodiversity and poverty alleviation criteria. Experience in using these standards in pilot projects shows that projects are currently combining several standards as part of their strategy to improve their ability to attract investment, but costs of implementing several certification schemes is a concern. We conclude that voluntary certification provides useful practical experience that should feed into the design of the international REDD+ regime. Bringing Forest Carbon Projects to the Market (2010)
15 June 2010
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The objective of the Guidebook is to instruct project developers and financial investors on how to develop and implement profitable forestry projects in the carbon markets. The Guidebook provides insight on the issues that have thus far limited the forest carbon market and contribute much needed credibility to the forestry sector by aiming to stimulate investment and a pipeline of bankable projects. The Guidebook illustrates best practices, success stories developers can emulate, and pitfalls that should be avoided, and also sheds light on the primary causes for underdevelopment of the forestry carbon sector to snowball the process. REDD+ Social & Environmental Standards (2010)
01 June 2010
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While activities that reduce emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and contribute to conservation, sustainable management of forests and enhancement of forest carbon stocks (REDD+) have the potential to deliver significant social and environmental cobenefits, many have also highlighted the serious risks notably for Indigenous Peoples and local communities, and in particular for marginalized and/or vulnerable social groups within these forest-dependent communities. Recognizing growing awareness at both international and national levels of the need for effective social and environmental safeguards, this initiative aims to define and build support for a higher level of social and environmental performance from REDD+ programs. Ministry of Finance Green Paper - Economic and Fiscal Policy Strategies for Climate Change Mitigation in Indonesia (2009)
30 November 2009
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The Green Paper identifies economic and fiscal policy strategies for climate change mitigation – that is, reducing emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases – and how to do this in the most cost effective way. It lays out strategies for the Ministry of Finance for efficient and effective policies, both in the short term and the long term. The paper is grounded in economic principles, and applies emerging international experience to Indonesia’s circumstances. Forest Carbon Market Update (2009)
16 October 2009
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An update on: U.S. Market Update,  Voluntary Market Update, International Update and Market Price Update State and Trends of the Carbon Market. (2009)
02 October 2009
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Accurately recording project-based transactions is becoming more difficult each year since the number of transactions together with the diversity of players involved is increasing dramatically. Prices and contract structures, in particular, are confidential in a gradually more competitive market. The authors have collected information from a review of the major relevant carbon-industry publications105 and direct interviews covering a range of market players (private companies in Europe and in Japan, fund managers and traders) to gain a broader view on the state and tends of the market. Ensuring Integrity in Forest Carbon Markets - A Concept Note (2009)
15 June 2009
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This Concept Note makes the case that in order to ensure the integrity of Forest Carbon Markets, carbon compliance must be integrated into sustainable forest management (SFM). Climate, Community and Biodiversity Project Design Standards. (2008)
02 December 2008
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The CCB Standards identify land-based projects that are designed to deliver robust and credible greenhouse gas reductions while also delivering net positive benefits to local communities and biodiversity. The Standards can be applied to any land-based carbon projects including both projects that reduce greenhouse gas emissions through avoided deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) and projects that remove carbon dioxide by sequestering carbon (e.g., reforestation, afforestation, revegetation, forest restoration, agroforestry and sustainable agriculture). The CCB Standards are important for all phases of project planning and management, from design through implementation and monitoring.

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Documents by Subject


Payment Distribution
Deforestation and Degradation
Forest Management in Indonesia
Land Tenure
Carbon Accounting
Indonesia Actions
Governance Assesstment
Financing Options
Opportunity Cost
Regulation on REDD in Indonesia
Carbon Market
REDD Demonstration Sites
Indigenous People
UNFCCC Policy on Forest Emission
Remote Survey

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Payment Distribution
Deforestation and Degradation
Forest Management in Indonesia
Land Tenure
Carbon Accounting
Indonesia Actions
Governance Assesstment
Financing Options
Opportunity Cost
Regulation on REDD in Indonesia
Carbon Market
REDD Demonstration Sites
Indigenous People
UNFCCC Policy on Forest Emission
Remote Survey