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Voluntary Guidelines on The Responsible of Tenure of Land - Fisheries and Forests in The Context of National Food Security (2012)
11 May 2012
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These Voluntary Guidelines seek to improve governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests. They seek to do so for the benefit of all, with an emphasis on vulnerable and marginalized people, with the goals of food security and progressive realization of the right to adequate food, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, environmental protection and sustainable social and economic development. All programmes, policies and technical assistance to improve governance of tenure through the implementation of these Guidelines should be consistent with States’ existing obligations under international law, including the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and other international human rights instruments. Forest Land Use Dynamics in Indonesia (2012)
15 February 2012
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Alternative land use remains a controversial issue in Indonesia, particularly with regard to regions outside Java. This paper aims to highlight forest land use dynamics in Indonesia, and particularly the difficulties of resolving the conflicts between conservation, the need to preserve local livelihoods, the demands of the logging industry, both legal and illegal, and the pressures to convert land from forest use to other uses, mainly agriculture, plantations and mining. The paper also stresses the importance of more research into who benefits from these competing uses of forest lands, and how these benefits have been distributed within Indonesian society. In conclusion, this paper argues that the underlying causes of deforestation in Indonesia are complex, and cover various aspects of market failure, inappropriate policy implementation in relation to forest management, lack of governance capacity at central and district levels, and other, broader socioeconomic and political issues. Towards Certainty and Justice in Tenure - The Views of the Indonesian Civil Society Groups Concerning the Principles, Prerequisites & Measures in Reforming the Policies on the Control of Land & Forest Zones in Indonesia (2011)
07 November 2011
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The views of the Indonesian civil society groups concerning the principles, prerequisites and measures in reforming the policies on the control of land and forest zones in Indonesia. The Indonesian civil society proposes three domains for reform as a means to reform the policies on control of land and forest zones, namely: (1) Improvement of the policy and acceleration of the process of strengthening forestry zones; (2) Settlement of forestry conflicts; (3) Extension of the people’s management area and enhancement of the welfare of the traditional community and other local communities. Forestry Conflict in Indonesia - HuMa News (2011)
07 September 2011
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HuMa records that from 2.736.662,47 hectares of manifest conflict related to natural resources, the primary source of is from plantation which is about 67,60% or 1.849.873,73 hectares. Number two is forestry conflict which is about 27,17% or 74.643,92 hectares. The rest are from public facilities, irrigation, mining, land, fishpond, transmigration, water, housing, marine, cultivated land and others. HuMa’s data explicates more deeply the character of forestry conflicts. Actors involved are mostly private sectors who have an overlapping claim with communities’. HuMa is mapping a forestry conflict per year from 1978-2011. Land Tenure and REDD+ : Risk to Property Rights and Opportunities for Economic Growth (2011)
15 August 2011
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Global climate change threatens to impact the livelihoods of millions of the poorest and most vulnerable populations in profound and unpredictable ways. In addition, society‘s responses to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions leading to climate change may provide opportunities for economic growth for rural populations, or dangers to local livelihoods. This paper focuses on understanding how mitigation efforts based on reducing emissions and increasing sequestration by forests (REDD+) may interact with property rights and, by extension, poverty and economic growth for smallholders. An Economic Case for Tenure Reform in Indonesia's Forests (2011)
15 July 2011
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This brief sets out some facts and analysis about the state of forest management in Indonesia. It does not aim to recapitulate the many existing studies of the extent of deforestation. The hard facts of the diminishing state of the forest are widely known, and the key drivers of deforestation (such as weak governance, corruption, illegal logging, economic development) have been discussed at length. Instead, this paper will attempt to explore the deeper issues that may explain the current state of the land use sector by viewing it in the context of the country’s economic trajectory. The poor state of the country’s forest, the relative decline of the forest industry and the inefficiency of the agriculture sector are consequences of a political and economic system that is informed by certain attitudes towards land, people and communities. This attitude prevents real change in the sector, and even though some progress has been made in policy terms in the recent past (most notably the recent moratorium on primary forest conversion), the likely effect of these changes on the overall system is likely to be limited because the underlying issues are not being addressed. This brief will attempt to introduce some of these issues, by explaining how the forestry sector got into the current parlous state, how this trajectory spells bad news for Indonesia, and how an alternative scenario could be envisioned and achieved. An Economic Case for Tenure Reform in Indonesia's Forests (2011)
15 July 2011
size : 926.07 KB


This brief sets out some facts and analysis about the state of forest management in Indonesia.3 It does not aim to recapitulate the many existing studies of the extent of deforestation. The hard facts of the diminishing state of the forest are widely known, and the key drivers of deforestation (such as weak governance, corruption, illegal logging, economic development) have been discussed at length. Instead, this paper will attempt to explore the deeper issues that may explain the current state of the land use sector by viewing it in the context of the country’s economic trajectory. The poor state of the country’s forest, the relative decline of the forest industry and the inefficiency of the agriculture sector are consequences of a political and economic system that is informed by certain attitudes towards land, people and communities. This attitude prevents real change in the sector, and even though some progress has been made in policy terms in the recent past (most notably the recent moratorium on primary forest conversion), the likely effect of these changes on the overall system is likely to be limited because the underlying issues are not being addressed. This brief will attempt to introduce some of these issues, by explaining how the forestry sector got into the current parlous state, how this trajectory spells bad news for Indonesia, and how an alternative scenario could be envisioned and achieved. Importance of Land and Forest Tenure Reforms in Implementing a Climate Change Sensitive Development Agenda (Speech by Kuntoro Mangkusubroto) (2011)
12 July 2011
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Land Tenure and Payment for Environmental Services - Challenges and Opportunities for REDD+ (2011)
15 June 2011
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This article highlights the land tenure implications of payment for environmental services (PES) mechanisms to reduce carbon emissions and enhance carbon sequestration, and offers suggestions for incorporating tenure into PES strategies. The first section begins with an overview of PES in the context of carbon-based approaches, focusing on one mechanism: REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation of Forest Resources). The second section discusses the myriad of tenure challenges associated with effective implementation of carbon-based PES schemes. These challenges are often found in countries where more complex forms of tenure prevail and exist alongside civil law systems; yet, many such countries host some of the world’s largest forest carbon stocks. The third section presents options for addressing tenure challenges, focusing on legal and governance measures but also stressing practical strategies that nurture the effectiveness of normative reforms. The authors conclude by emphasizing the importance of clarifying and securing resource users’ rights to land and other natural resources to the ultimate success of climate change mitigation goals. The Food Regime in The Land Grab Articulating'Global Ecology' and Political Economy (2011)
08 April 2011
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Abstract: This paper situates the land grab in the conjunctural crisis of capitalist ecology, expressed in climate, energy and food crises, which in turn transform the food/fuel regime. This crisis serves a double purpose: of justifying investment in land offshore to offset shortages in the name of food and (alternative) energy security on the one hand, and on the other, to facilitate a new wave of investment in agriculture as a solution to the profitability crisis of capital in an era of financialization. In addition, this new enclosure is an expression of transition in the food regime, as its geopolitical form and productive content re-centers on Southern land and the emerging bioeconomic imperative. The paper explores this transition, and whether and to what extent agriculture’ itself is the answer to the current accumulation crisis, noting that capital’s profitability depends on subsidies from home and host governments, and infrastructural support of land grabbing by development agencies. Related to this is the discursive framework spun around investment in farm, forest and common land, and what it might tell us about the refashioning of necessity and possibility in the neoliberal development project of embedding states, and the development establishment, in the imperatives of accumulation and dispossession. REDD+ and Tenure : A Review of the Latest Development in Research, Implementation and Debate (2011)
15 February 2011
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Unclear and/or insecure forest tenure has been identified by many as an indirect driver of deforestation and forest degradation. Consequently, reforming tenure is considered an important measure in order to control deforestation. Clarifying tenure is also seen as a way of promoting equitable REDD+ implementation. By clarifying tenure it will be harder for governments or powerful external actors to reap the benefits of REDD. Clear and secure tenure can also protect poor forest dwellers and local communities from exclusion or even eviction from forest lands and provide them with greater leverage in national REDD+ processes. REDD, Tenure & Local Communities - A Study from Aceh, Indonesia (2009)
15 October 2009
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This study shows how the national interest, a vague notion of development and the state's right of control enshrined in various laws and regulations relating to land and forests – including a recent REDD Regulation – have subordinated constitutional and legislative provisions protecting customary (adat) rights in Indonesia. Most land ownership in Aceh and Indonesia's forest areas is not documented through the National Land Administration Agency (BPN). Instead, community members claim ownership through local land administration systems or simply through occupation and use of the land. Ordinary community members often feel excluded from the process off delineating forest boundaries and forest management. This has led to uncertain tenure in and around forest areas. This study makes eight recommendations to enhance tenure security for forest dependent people through REDD in Indonesia. Tenure in REDD - Start Point or Afterthought (2009)
02 July 2009
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This report aims to take the debate forward by identifying: a typology of tenure regimes in rainforest countries and some of the challenges they present for REDD; the nature of tenure and usage rights regimes within key rainforest countries; and the issues revealed by exploration of these regimes that will need to be engaged with if REDD and related strategies are to have sustainable impact. Seven rainforest countries – examples of those likely to be major players within a REDD system – are the focus of attention: Brazil, Cameroon, Democratic Republic of Congo, Guyana, Indonesia, Malaysia and Papua New Guinea. Underlying Cause of Fire Different Form of Land Tenure Conflicts in Sumatera (2007)
02 July 2007
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Abstract. One of the social phenomena that have arisen in Indonesia in the post-Reformasi period (mid-1998) is the increase in land tenure conflicts between local communities and tree plantation companies, and between local communities and the forestry department. Land tenure conflicts often trigger forest and land fires, which is both a symptom and a cause of increasing conflict over tenure and use rights. If the tenure issue is not appropriately addressed, it will continue to result in unwanted fires and forest degradation, related smoke and gas emissions, and environmental and economic losses. A recent study in Sumatra revealed that, in many cases, (1) tenure conflicts between companies and communities, resulting from past government policies and practices, often trigger forest and land fires because of frustrations by the communities of being unable to have their claims heard in a fair and transparent judicial system; and (2) even with the use of military force, forest policy and management has largely failed to protect forest resources when local communities were not involved. The nature of the partnership between communities and companies in land use development is also an important factor in influencing the incidence and control of fire.   Strengthening Forest Management in Indonesia Through Land Tenure Reform - Issues and Framework for Action (2005)
02 July 2005
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This paper examines opportunities and challenges for addressing the tenure and land management questions that emerge from the skewed classification and management of the Forest Zone in Indonesia. Two basic natural resource rights and management priorities are proposed as integral to a Forest Zone rationalization process. The first prioritizes action towards the recognition or awarding of management or, when appropriate, ownership rights to local communities (collective or individual) over lands within the Forest Zone (Kawasan Hutan). An important conclusion of this analysis is that Indonesian law does not provide a basis for the Department of Forestry to own land within the State Forest Zone. Instead it provides only for government control and management of natural resources (Undang Undang Dasar 1945; Indonesian Constitution Section 33). On the other hand, the Basic Agrarian Law does allow for the state to own land but only when no other rights are present. Yet, even after sorting out the land rights question within the Forest Zone, during which some lands are determined to be genuinely owned by the State, the jurisdiction of the Department of Forestry extends only to the forest resources on those lands.

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Payment Distribution
Deforestation and Degradation
Forest Management in Indonesia
Land Tenure
Carbon Accounting
Indonesia Actions
Governance Assesstment
Financing Options
Opportunity Cost
Regulation on REDD in Indonesia
Carbon Market
REDD Demonstration Sites
Indigenous People
UNFCCC Policy on Forest Emission
Remote Survey

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Payment Distribution
Deforestation and Degradation
Forest Management in Indonesia
Land Tenure
Carbon Accounting
Indonesia Actions
Governance Assesstment
Financing Options
Opportunity Cost
Regulation on REDD in Indonesia
Carbon Market
REDD Demonstration Sites
Indigenous People
UNFCCC Policy on Forest Emission
Remote Survey